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AMMONIUM CHLORIDE is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations. It can be used as an expectorant due to its irritative action on the bronchial mucosa. This effect causes the production of respiratory tract fluid which in order facilitates the effective cough.
SODIUM BICARBONATE BP/USP Sodium bicarbonate occurs as an odorless, white, crystalline powder with a saline, slightly alkaline taste. Sodium bicarbonate is generally used in pharmaceutical formulations as a source of carbon dioxide in effervescent tablets and granules. Additionally, sodium bicarbonate is used in solutions as a buffering agent for erythromycin, lidocaine, local anesthetic solutions, and total parenteral nutrition solutions. In some parenteral formulations, e.g. niacin, sodium bicarbonate is used to produce a sodium salt of the active ingredient that has enhanced solubility. Sodium bicarbonate has also been used as a freeze-drying stabilizer. Therapeutically, sodium bicarbonate may be used as an antacid, and as a source of the bicarbonate anion in the treatment of metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may also be used as a component of oral rehydration salts and as a source of bicarbonate in dialysis fluids.
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